Thursday, April 28, 2011

Bulletin: Police React Violently to Today's Protests

The protest campaign against inflation masterminded by the opposition continued today. The police response--disproportionately violent, in my view. Click here for video of the arrest of opposition leader Kizza Besigye.

Peace Journalism Project pays dividends for journalists, communities

Editor's note: As we leave Uganda tomorrow, I'd like to reflect on the last ten months. Today, we'll talk business. Next week, in part two, I'll share some personal reflections about our wonderful Ugandan friends and colleagues.

From the Parkville Luminary

KAMPALA, UGANDA—As my time in Uganda winds down, the obvious question about my 10 months here is whether my presence made any difference for this wonderful, maddening country and its resourceful, friendly, poverty-stricken residents. (Picture-At Kampala Peace Journalism Summit)

Did I waste my time and American tax dollars (my $270,000 peace journalism project was supported by the U.S. State Department and USAID)? Am I just another arrogant Westerner preaching mzungu (white person) values?

In an attempt to justify our efforts, we produced a project assessment report. I know—self assessments are hardly reliable, but that’s all we could afford. I still hope our report isn’t worthless.

We were extremely busy. My assistant Gloria Laker (pictured, at the Kampala Peace Journ Summit) and I lead 30 seminars for radio journalists and managers. 447 radio professionals attended our seminars, which taught the pros how to tell stories without inflammatory language in ways that can deflate conflicts before they become violent. These peace journalism seminars were held all over Uganda. We traveled 9,222 miles (I kept track) on often pothole-decorated roads. We also convened four follow-up meetings with former seminar attendees to give them advanced training and also to collect assessment data.

The goal of our project was to prevent media induced or exacerbated violence before and during the Ugandan presidential election, which was held Feb. 18. Did our project meet this goal?

First, there was no media induced or exacerbated election violence in 2010-2011. (There was one arrest of a radio DJ in Masaka for incitement, although Uganda Human Rights Watch said that incitement was used only as an excuse for his arrest.) We also know that there were no incidents of media incited violence because none of the hundreds of journalists who we’re regularly in contact with reported any such incidents. The strongest evidence of a dearth of media induced or exacerbated violence can be seen in results from a survey we conducted of 40 radio journalists/presenters and 20 radio managers during the first two weeks of March. Among other things, those surveyed were asked if anything (news, talk program, panelists, telephone callers) broadcast by their radio station encouraged or incited violence. All 60 responded no, that they did not incite violence. Then they were asked if anything (news, talk program, panelists, telephone callers) broadcast by any other radio station in their area/district encouraged or incited violence.
Two responded yes, and cited the Masaka incident. The other 58 responded no.

The absence of media induced violence is wonderful, and perhaps even a bit surprising given the ugly history in the region of radio stations stirring up violent mobs (Kenya 2007-08; Rwanda 1994; Uganda 2009).

So, can our peace journalism project take credit for this lack of media induced violence?

The journalists who attended our follow up meetings weren’t hesitant about crediting our project with preventing violence. The nearly unanimous opinion of the journalists was that the peace journalism trainings led to more responsible and balanced reporting that more carefully avoided inflammatory language or irresponsible, sensationalistic framing of stories. Our survey results confirmed what the journalists told us. Respondents were asked to rate the effectiveness of the peace/electoral journalism trainings for radio journalists, announcers, and managers (on a 1-5 scale) in preventing broadcasts that might encourage or incite violence. Five is very effective, and one not at all effective.
The average for this question was 4.38, somewhere between effective and very effective. Those surveyed were also asked to rate the effectiveness of the peace/electoral journalism trainings in improving the professionalism of election coverage. The average was 4.33.

So, take it from us, we did a great job! Yes, I know how this sounds, but it’s the best and only data we have, so take it for what it’s worth. In my gut, I know the project made a real difference for most of our trainees and for Uganda. (Picture--Gloria and I in traditional Karamajong warrior's outfits, at the Kampala PJ Summit).

If we did succeed, it’s because of the dedication of Project Assistant Gloria Laker and the Ugandan journalists who committed themselves to improving their professionalism and making their communities a better place.

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Dedicated Broadcasters Shine at Peace Journalism Awards Dinner

U.S. Ambassador to Uganda Jerry Lanier hosted the PJ Awards Dinner last Thursday. The event honored five winners of our peaceful electoral reporting contest. They are: Anyango Yango Catherine Teko--First place, (Moroto)--Pictured--; Lekuru Grace Rechue--Second, (Gulu); Oteebwa Lynnate Rachel--Third, (Kabale); Ojok Emmanuel--honorable mention (Arua), and Alison Blick Akatukwasa --honorable mention (Busenyi).

Ambassador Lanier used the gathering as an opportunity to deliver a diplomatic warning about free press in Uganda. He said that "silencing media does not make them go away", and reiterated the fact that free expression is a fundamental human right. (Pix-Ambassador Lanier addressing the gathering).

I was very proud that the ambassador would agree to host us at his residence, and grateful for his timely comments about free speech and for his kind words about our peace journalism project. It was a wonderful way to cap off 10 months of gratifying, exhausting work. (Pictured-Steven Youngblood and project assistant Gloria Laker).

For a complete photo album from the event, click here.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Isolated Town Serves Up the Luxury of Silence

From the Parkville Luminary

PADER, UGANDA—As I silently pick at my whole fried fish, I realize that what I see and hear on the patio in front of my hotel is unlike anything I’m liable to ever experience again.

I hear no human noises, at least initially. I do detect loud, almost distressed mooing mixed with distant rumbles from threatening but ultimately impotent thunderheads. I set down my water gingerly on the table, careful not to make any noise that might disturb this aural simplicity.

I’ve read that in the 21st century, as the world gets more and more crowded, that man’s most desired luxury may be silence. Sitting here alone, that’s not hard to believe.

Unfortunately, the silence and the calm it inspires is broken as a sputtering motorbike staggers in front of the hotel. The motorcycle (boda boda) driver and his paying passenger slow as they approach me, trying not to stare but finding themselves unable to resist. Here in very rural, remote northern Uganda, a muno (white person) is as rare as a humble Texan.

After the motorbike saunters by, the kids playing in front of the ramshackle grass-thatched hut across the road finally notice me. These little kids look at me like I’m from Mars. Of course, it’s a rare treat to for them to see a muno. After a minute or two of jaw-dropped fascination, they finally screw up the courage to wave to me. One Ugandan friend said that when she was a kid, seeing a muno and waving to him was a really big deal—something to tell your friends and family all about. Though I immediately saw the boys wave, I thought I’d make them sweat for a few seconds. Finally, I raise my hand high, and give them the biggest Midwestern “howdy neighbor” wave I could muster. The kids giggle and quickly run off, presumably to spread the news that there’s an animated muno in town.

A few minutes later, one of the youngsters, a skinny, barefooted boy wearing ragged, stained clothes, reappears near the road. The boy had noticed a group (herd? gaggle? pride? ) of bleating goats jogging down the rutted dirt road. You could almost see the devilish horns appear above his head as he moves to intercept the goats. He succeeds, cutting off half from the rest of the troupe. The intercepted goats are beside themselves, partially afraid, partially irritated. As the goats move to outflank the boy, the boy shifts, sending the goats into a frenzy of confused, angry retreating. After about 5 minutes, this game ends in a stalemate. Once the boy clears out, the goats gallop down the street at stallion speed. Their goat buddies were already out of sight. I wonder if the stragglers got lost. A lost goat here, by the way, ends up in a stew pot with some root vegetables in just a few seconds.

Another rumble of thunder greets the goats’ departure. The wind starts picking up, carrying with it the smell of nearby cooking fires. In impoverished Pader, unlike most other Ugandan towns, small huts are scattered throughout the town, even near the center. These huts don’t have kitchens, so all the cooking is done outside on wood or charcoal fires.

The goat tormentor’s hut is across the road, and eight more huts are clustered about a hundred yards away near some ramshackle, abandoned-looking buildings. If you spend enough time in modern Kampala, you can sometimes forget the pervasive poverty in Uganda. However, that reality slaps you in the face here as you smell the cooking fires and see the skinny children running around their tiny huts, which, an hour before dusk, are already eerily dark inside. Electrical lines found their way to Pader just a year ago. However, here in my temporary neighborhood, no huts or buildings (including my hotel) are connected to the shiny new transformers because few here can afford to hook up power or pay a monthly bill.

Underneath the new power lines, a tiny, smiling boy makes his way down a side road carrying an empty 10-liter jerry can used for toting water. He spots me, and stops in his tracks, frozen as if gazing upon a lion. Suddenly, he grins big and waves energetically with his free hand. I make him wait a few seconds, then enthusiastically return his earnest greeting.

Monday, April 18, 2011

Govmt threatens journalists, attempts to silence social media

From website, The Daily Monitor, April 18: "Journalists are encamped at Kasangati Police Post, afraid of moving out to cover the running battles after one military officer told them that 'shooting a journalist by mistake is not a crime,' according to our reporter on the scene, Mr Gerald Bareebe."

Meanwhile, a new report confirms that the government tried, but failed, to censor Twitter and Facebook during unrest last week.

How should Ugandan journalists cover unrest, violence?

The following exchange took place on the Peace Journalism Facebook page today:
Question from journalist David, Mbale:
How should a peace journalist cover an event like the arrest of the Kiza Besigye and other Ugandan Opposition Leaders be covered?

Response from Steven Youngblood:
These events must be covered, so the question is how. I say, cover it as honestly as possible without using inflammatory language. Take extra care to be accurate, since rumours can be deadly under these circumstances. Don't give voice to those who preach violence. Don't make a bad situation worse. When covering breaking, live events, don't let the rush to be first cloud your judgment as you carefully weigh the consequences of what you report and how you report it. Expose government violence without implying that violent retribution is the only response to government violence. But be balanced, and also expose violence (and those who preach violence) in the opposition. Help your listeners and communities explore peaceful options. And, above all, be careful. Your personal safety comes first.

Saturday, April 16, 2011

Civil unrest in Uganda
Chaos Thurs, Fri leads to arrests; Govmt resorts to censorship

A reported 220 people were arrested Thursday in anti-government profests in Kampala, while similar protests in Gulu left three persons dead. On Friday, 70 students were injured and 7 arrested in protests at Makerere Univ in Kampala. For more on the protest movement, dubbed "walk to work", see The Daily Monitor newspaper or #walktowork on Twitter. (Photo-Makerere students protest; from Daily Monitor).

My Ugandan friends are all worried about whether these protests will become more frequent, widespread, and violent. Even government supporters are angry at the bullying tactics used against protesters. Are these fairly small outbursts or harbingers of larger, better organized protests? Is the government in jeopardy? I agree with one Ugandan friend who believes that these tremors may be the beginning of a process that undermines the government. Opposition politicians are using the economy, especially inflation, as an excuse for the protests. However, if inflation here continues at 11%, the politics will become secondary to the economy. I'm not sure politics can galvanize Ugandans. However, I think the economy can.

Media Censorship
Especially alarming to those of us in media are reports that the government is turning to censorship in an attempt to put a lid on the unrest. (See article below from the Daily Monitor). The article's claim that the government is moving to ban live coverage of the protests seems to be both plausible and proven.

On the subject of cyber-censorship, the Monitor article alludes to possible blocking of the newspaper's website, but doesn't offer any proof. The Observer newspaper has an online article detailing Internet network outages, but offers no proof of government censorship. (Click here to read this piece yourself). There are also other Twitter rumors of government blocking Internet, but again, nothing concrete or proven.

Whether it's banning live coverage (proven) or blocking the Internet (rumored), this kind of censorship usually backfires. The Internet blackout in Egypt helped public opinion to coalesce against Mubarak's government. This is 2011, and even in Uganda, international media proliferate. If Ugandan media is muzzled, the population here will simply turn to radio stations from neighboring countries or from international sources like BBC radio or Voice of America. Heavy-handed attempts to control information do not reflect the reality of today's media rich world, but instead reveal desperation and antiquated Soviet-style notions about how to manipulate the public.

From the Daily Monitor: Government Bans Live Broadcasts of Events

The government last evening moved to curtail major broadcasting houses when it banned live broadcast of news events around the walk-to-work campaign. BBC’s Joshua Mali told Daily Monitor that a senior source at one of the TV stations affected spoke to him on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the matter.
The Uganda Communication Commission (UCC) reportedly directed radio and television stations to stop running live coverage of the events.

Peter Mwesige, a media consultant and trainer, called the directive to broadcasters “absolutely ridiculous”. “If it is true, it would be a profound violation to freedom of expression and the right of the people to know what is taking place around them and how they are governed,” he said. “You should absolutely defy it. It is illegal. It is unconstitutional.”

Meanwhile, Internet access for some companies including Daily Monitor was interrupted for some time yesterday afternoon. As a result, this newspaper’s ability to update its website and other web-based media with live feeds was compromised.

Sunday, April 10, 2011

Colleagues Collaborate to Spread PJ to Universities

I met last week with about 15 professors/lecturers from five different Ugandan universities. We discussed peace journalism theory as well as some PJ instructional techniques. They committed to both integrating PJ into their existing university courses and also to teaching stand-alone PJ classes. (There are currently no PJ courses at Ugandan universities). The professors seemed engaged and dedicated, and I look forward to our contunued collaboration on bringing PJ principles/courses to Ugandan university communications students. (Click here for complete photo album of professor's seminar).

Acholi Cultural Lesson Leaves Lasting Imprint

From the Parkville Luminary

NEAR GULU, UGANDA—As a fretful parent, I constantly worry about pulling my son out of school and bringing him to live in Uganda for the Spring, 2011 semester.

After yesterday, I am fretting a lot less.

Even though his school, Lakeview Middle, is excellent, and the teachers top-notch, the cultural lesson my 13-year old son Alex absorbed yesterday far eclipses anything a student could possibly learn in a classroom.

Alex was uncharacteristically silent as we slowly wheeled our car onto a dusty, shaded compound in northern Uganda, near Gulu. We had come to visit my friend Gloria’s grandmother. Lounging on a woven mat in the shade, Grandma Kerodia (Claudia) greeted us excitedly, and smiled so broadly she almost injured herself. Claudia, thin but otherwise healthy-looking, loves visitors and adores her granddaughter, so this was a big day for her, especially since we were the first munos (white people) to ever visit this place where she was born in 1903. Yes, Claudia is 108 years old. Though she doesn’t speak English, Claudia still managed to carry on a lively discussion with us in Acholi, the local language. She even managed to tease a beaming but temporarily mute Alex about stealing her son’s name (he is also Alex).

During our brief stay at Claudia’s place, I had never seen Alex so quiet, or so intently studying his surroundings, including symmetrical mango trees with dangling, not quite ripe fruit and hollowed-out logs serving as bee hives. Alex politely ate the extra crunchy dried potatoes he was offered by Claudia, even though they were a bit dry for his taste.

As we left a smiling, waving Claudia, we learned a bit more about Claudia’s long life. Her granddaughter Gloria reported that Claudia was an outstanding dancer, something you can still see glimpses of in her thin, lithe form. Gloria said, “As a young and elegant dancer, Claudia was spotted by my grandfather, the late Rwot Okello Ecao, and Claudia became his eighth (!) wife and the youngest and most loved wife. In early 2000, Claudia visited her sons Odoch Walter and Bwomono Robert who live in London. During her stay in the UK, Claudia became ‘an aging star’ where she was always given money for singing and dancing for muni [white people]…She was always surrounded by people who came to look at her beautiful gray hair and take her picture.”

As if meeting someone 95 years your senior wasn’t enough for one day, Alex, his mom and I proceeded down the road to visit the homestead of Gloria’s parents. We were happy to see the entire extended family gathered there—aunts and uncles, siblings, and other miscellaneous friends and neighbors. The women, as always, were striking in their colorful dresses. Gloria’s family was warm, welcoming, and wonderful. The highlight of our visit was a lesson about Acholi life given by Gloria’s effervescent uncle, Lapwony Latim. He is a retired teacher, a fact about which one has no doubt upon hearing his informative, energetic presentation. We went to a large, expertly crafted mud brick, thatched-roof hut for our sociology lesson. Acholi artifacts adorned the walls. Uncle Latim showed us elegant yet functional hand make baskets, bowls, and clay pots and told us stories about how they’re made and used. During this lesson, Alex was transfixed, and again, uncharacteristically quiet. I sensed he had a million questions, but was too shy to ask.

The most important lesson of all that we learned yesterday was the value of family in Acholi society. Both compounds we visited (and others I’ve seen during the last eight months) featured a large clearing ringed by four or five small huts. These are family compounds, and each hut contains a husband and wife (or several wives) and children. Imagine your siblings, parents, and grandparents all having houses on one cul-de-sac, and you get the idea. Living further apart would be unthinkable for the Acholi. There are no nursing homes here, and if there were, Gloria’s family would never think of sending Claudia to such a place.

So, even though Alex isn’t seated next to his classmates at Lakeview Middle School, I am satisfied with the education he’s getting this semester in Uganda. Our overall educational goal for Alex is to produce a smart, compassionate, adaptable, and curious young man. Based on these criteria, yesterday’s lesson in rural Gulu, Uganda was a resounding success.

(Click here for complete photo album of our visit with our new Ugandan relatives).

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

What's in a name?

You may notice the slight name change for this page. The new name recognizes the fact that I will be leaving Uganda within a month, yet my work in Peace Journalism will continue. In fact, I'll be working in the coming months on PJ projects in South Africa and Turkey.

Did the media inflame violence in the Koran burning case?

This is a difficult conundrum for journalists. Do we ignore actual news in an effort to keep the peace? Do we spin news in a conflict-sensitive way so as to mitigate the harmful effects of what we report? My position is always that journalists should consider the consequences of their reporting. It's our responsibility to be aware of our power to incite violence, and to choose options that give peace and reconciliation an opportunity to flourish. Had I been reporting for an Afghan audience, I would have sought a way to give the story some context--that Jones is only one isolated fool--and to remind Afghans that a violent reaction only discredits Islam in the eyes of some.

Here are three other takes on this issue:

Apr 01, 2011
Should media have reported the Florida Quran burning?
from USA Today By John Raoux, AP

In Afghanistan seven people died today after a demonstration by 2,000 Muslims -- angry that a tiny Florida church burned the Quran -- turned into a deadly attack on a U.N. outpost.

USA TODAY carried coverage of that Quran burning. I wrote about it here and Religion News Service interviewed the pastor Terry Jones. Some of you readers objected: Why give this man more publicity? Ignore him and he'll go away like he did after a massive international outcry last September, people said.

But ignoring news events doesn't mean they don't happen. The Dove World Outreach Center, his miniscule congregation in Gainesville, Fla., has a web site with a photo of a burning book on it. The Agence France-Presse reporter who witnessed the burning in March described people taking souvenir pictures. The AFP story swept the international press and how long do you think it took before photos moved on the Internet.

So, I ask again: Who's responsible for the death in in Afghanistan today? The mob fired the guns but who handed them the ammunition? The news media? Or Terry Jones? And if we had not carried the stories about Jones, would this magically have made the event vanish, too?

Free speech, fighting words, and Koran burning

La Times By Tim Rutten
April 6, 2011

In this digital age, speech has been globalized just as surely as commerce.

That's one of the lessons to be taken from the troubling sequence of events in which a tiny Florida church's distasteful publicity stunt of burning a Koran triggered five days of protest and mob violence across Afghanistan. Through Tuesday, more than 20 people had been killed, and the hand of our Taliban antagonists has been strengthened.

…The American news media simply ignored Jones' crude cabaret of bigotry, but a video made its way onto the Internet. Then, for reasons that remain unclear, Afghan President Hamid Karzai refused to let the provocation pass. On March 24, he issued a news release demanding that the United States "bring to justice the perpetrators of this crime." On Thursday, he gave a speech condemning the burning and demanding Jones' arrest.

…Others have raised the question of whether our conception of constitutionally protected speech needs to adjust itself to an age in which words spoken in Gainesville can have deadly impact in Mazar-i-Sharif. Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.), for example, wants Congress to explore ways to limit now-protected expressions, such as Jones'. "Free speech is a great idea, but we're in a war," he said Sunday. "During World War II, we had limits on what you could do if it inspired the enemy." Graham, who wields considerable influence as a former military lawyer, said he wants to do "anything we can to push back here in America against acts like this that put our troops at risk."

…Others have wondered whether it might be possible to apply the "fighting words" exception to the 1st Amendment to cases such as Jones' stunt, which seemed almost certain to provoke a deadly response half a world away. In its 1942 ruling in Chaplinsky vs. New Hampshire, the U.S. Supreme Court defined that exception in a way that could be construed to cover Jones' desecration of the Koran:

"There are certain well-defined and narrowly limited classes of speech, the prevention and punishment of which have never been thought to raise any constitutional problem. These include … 'fighting words' -- those which by their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace. It has been well observed that such utterances are no essential part of any exposition of ideas, and are of such slight social value as a step to truth that any benefit that may be derived from them is clearly outweighed by the social interest in order and morality."

…The issues raised by these events are not a challenge to our conception of free speech, but to our collective conscience. The question that ought to be asked isn't whether the wretched Jones' repellant theater is protected speech, but why the United States continues to produce as many people who speak and act as he does about Muslims?

Koran burning coverage troubling

Marty robbins, guardian/uk, 3 april, 2011

…It's troubling to see the sheer amount of exposure Jones and his followers have been given over the last several months (which of course I'm ironically contributing to here). If some daft bugger burns a Koran in the forest, does it matter? Probably not, but Terry Jones, cutely-described by the Telegraph as, "a homophobic used furniture salesman with a love of controversy," is no ordinary daft bugger; he and his glorious silver moustache are a global media phenomenon.

The legend of Pastor Jones is to a large extent a creation of the media (both traditional and new-fangled), fuelled by perhaps ill-advised comments from political figures who saw fit to wade in. While his 9/11 Koran-burning stunt in the words of the Washington Post "started with a tweet" last July, it was endless saturation coverage of his threat in more established media that propelled him to international celebrity.

…It would be silly to claim that the media hold responsibility for the killings of the UN staff; but on the other hand it's tempting to fall towards the conclusion I clumsily articulated yesterday, that providing Jones with such a powerful voice may have been a bit of a reckless thing to do – even if, as is probable, Jones was really just a convenient pretext for violence that might have happened anyway.

…Journalists cannot be assigned direct guilt for the actions of fundamentalist militants, suicidal fugitives or misguided parents; but they ought to have the awareness to stop once in a while and consider what the impact of their stories will be, and what public interest they serve.

…Thankfully, mainstream coverage of Pastor Jones and his gang had died down this year until now. A question journalists, editors and bloggers might want to ask themselves before writing more about Pastor Jones' increasingly transparent attempts to provoke outrage is this: what public interest is served by giving such a prominent platform to the bigoted ramblings of a minor Pastor and used-furniture salesman; what exactly, beyond sensational spectacle, is this coverage designed to achieve? How much coverage is too much coverage?

There probably aren't any definite right or wrong answers, but ultimately book-burning isn't a big deal unless people choose to make it one.

Saturday, April 2, 2011

Assessment Report:
Peace Journalism pjct meets goal--preventing media-induced violence

When those of us in the education profession hear the word assessment, we break out in hives. So, if you’re an educator, I'll understand if you navigate to another site. If you’re not, please read on, since this is good news.

The Uganda Peace Journalism project’s goal was to prevent media induced or exacerbated violence during the election. Did we succeed? Our research shows that there was no media induced violence during the election. (There was one arrest for inciting violence. However, a prominent Ugandan human rights group says the inciting charge was bogus; trumped up to cover a political arrest). Did our project help? In a nationwide survey of Ugandan radio managers and reporters, 87% rated our Peace Journalism project effective or very effective in preventing broadcasts that might encourage violence.

We’re humbled and gratified by this news. The credit, of course, goes to the Ugandan media managers and reporters who bravely implemented peace journalism during this election cycle.

April Fool’s day, Uganda Style

They do have April Fool’s day here. However, no fooling is allowed after noon. I was unable to extract a suitable explanation as to why this was so.

In Pader, a radio station broadcast an announcement on April 1 trumpeting very cheap beef that would be sold at so-and-so location. Hundreds apparently turned up, only to be told the bad news—April Fools. I was surprised to learn that no riot ensued. Of course, all this was done before Uganda’s April Fool’s Day noon curfew.

My personal April Fool's Day joke: I told my son that his favorite show, "Dancing with the Stars", was put on haitus due to a contract dispute. Side-splitting jocularity!!

Cavalcade of Audio-Video Treats

In case you’ve missed the plethora of free, mediocre AV materials offered by yours truly, here are some of the least offensive:

Follow me on Twitter: @slyoungbld
Photos from scenic Jinja, Uganda—Bujagali Falls, Source of the Nile
Video of Youngblood teaching Peace Journalism seminar in Uganda
Photos from various Peace Journalism workshops
Audio clips from PJ public service announcements produced by Ugandan journalists